It is the predecessor of the modern states of France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg and Germany. Lothair I or Lothar I was emperor, and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), King of Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855). Lothair's eldest son, Louis II, inherited Italy and his father's claim to the Imperial throne. The eldest, Lothair, was given the title of emperor, but amidst the re-apportioning and the revolts that resulted, his actual imperial power was severely curtailed. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Leo III in an effort to transfer the Roman Empire from east to west. His death in 814 began an extended period of fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and decline that would eventually lead to the evolution of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Since the Middle Frankish Kingdom combined lengthy and vulnerable land borders with poor internal communications as it was severed by the Alps, it was not a viable entity and soon fragmented. After extensive negotiations, the Treaty of Verdun was signed in August, 843. Lotharingia was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire and a later duchy of the Ottonian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France). After Louis’s death (840) open warfare broke out; Louis’s third son, Louis the German, allied with Charles in attacking the eldest son, the emperor Lothar I.

In 751 the Merovingian dynasty which had ruled the Germanic Franks was overthrown with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, and Pepin the Short, son of Martel, was crowned King of the Franks. It would then become modern Lorraine. The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.

[1] He also supported his nephew, Pepin II's claim to Aquitaine, a large province in the west of the Frankish realm.

Middle Francia was allocated to emperor Lothair I, the eldest son and successor of emperor Louis the Pious. The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
In 1871, Alsace-Lorraine became German, after the victory of Prussia and its German allies over the French in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871).

Corrections?

Treaty of Verdun [1], the partition of Charlemagne's empire among three sons of Louis I [2], emperor of the West. But Louis had several sons, and though he wanted the empire to remain a cohesive whole, he divided -- and re-divided -- the territory so that each might govern his own kingdom. Omissions?

The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. Division of the Frankish Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843. After Lothair's death in 855, Upper Burgundy and Lower Burgundy (Arles and Provence) passed to his third son, Charles of Provence, and the remaining territory north of the Alps to his second son, Lothair II, after whom the hitherto nameless territory was called Lotharingia. It is significant because it not only marked the beginning of the empire's dissolution, it laid out the general boundaries of what would become individual nation-states of Europe. The adjective 'upper' refers to its location further up the Rhône river, as distinct from Lower Burgundy and also from the Duchy of Burgundy west of the Saône river. It was named after King Lothair II who received this territory after the kingdom of Middle Francia of his father Lothair I was divided among his sons in 855. At Verdun (in present northeastern France) the following year, Lothar was confirmed in possession of the imperial title and received Francia Media, a long central strip of territory including parts of modern Belgium, the Netherlands, western Germany, eastern France, Switzerland, and much of Italy. The Duchy of Lorraine, originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France. The treaty followed an earlier treaty of Prüm which had split Middle Francia between Lothair I's sons after his death in 855. The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. It was created through the Treaty of Verdun (843) which divided the former empire into three kingdoms. The treaty was the first stage in the dissolution of the empire of Charlemagne and foreshadowed the formation of the modern countries of western Europe. Its capital was Nancy. He received the central portion of the empire, which included parts of present-day Belgium and much of the Netherlands, some of eastern France and western Germany, most of Switzerland, and a substantial portion of Italy. Defeated at Fontenoy, in present Belgium (June 841), and driven from Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen, Ger., 842), Lothar sued for peace. After the death of Louis in 840, Lothair tried to reclaim the power he'd originally wielded as emperor, but his two surviving brothers, Louis the German and ​Charles the Bald, joined forces against him, and a bloody civil war ensued.

During his reign, he divided the empire so that each of his sons could rule over their own kingdom under the greater rule of their father. In medieval history, West Francia or the Kingdom of the West Franks refers to the western part of the Frankish Empire established by Charlemagne.

Charles and Louis received West and East Francia (roughly, present-day France and Germany), while Lothar held the middle kingdom, a long strip of territory stretching from the North Sea over the Alps to Rome and bordered in the west by the rivers Scheldt, Meuse, and Saône and in the … Generations of kings of France and Germany were unable to establish a firm rule over Lothair's kingdom. After several battles,….

Upon the death of Charlemagne, his sole surviving son, Louis the Pious, inherited the entire Carolingian Empire. Melissa Snell is a historical researcher and writer specializing in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, West Francia became the predecessor of France, and East Francia became that of Germany. Lothair was eventually forced to admit defeat. Under the terms of the treaty, Lothair was allowed to keep the title of emperor, but he no longer had any real authority over his brothers. Grab ahold of various geographic facts—not Big Macs—in this quiz. Louis II (the German) and Charles II (the Bald) affirmed their alliance against Lothar I with the Oath of Strasbourg (842). East Francia or the Kingdom of the East Franks was a successor state of Charlemagne's empire ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, The Origin and Decline of the Papal States, The Rulers of France: From 840 Until 2017, Charlemagne: King of the Franks and Lombards, World War I and The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Portsmouth Ended Russo-Japanese War, The Other Reichs: The First and Second Before Hitler's Third, B.A., History, University of Texas at Austin. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Verdun, How Stuff Works - History - Treaty of Verdun. His realm contained the imperial cities of Aachen, the residence of Charlemagne, as well as Pavia but lacked any geographic or ethnic cohesion, which prevented it from surviving and forming a nucleus of a larger state, as was the case with West Francia and East Francia.

Upper Burgundy was reunited with the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy in 933, and eventually merged into the Imperial Kingdom of Arles (Arelat). After the death of Louis the Pious (840), his surviving sons continued their plotting to alter the succession. [3] While the north of Lotharingia was then composed of independent countries, the southern third of Lotharingia, Alsace-Lorraine, was traded back and forth between France and Germany from the 18th to the 20th century. The Treaty of Mersen or Meerssen, concluded on 8 August 870, was a treaty of partition of the realm of Lothair II, known as Lotharingia, by his uncles Louis the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia, the two surviving sons of Emperor Louis I the Pious.
Louis the German, also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia, and ruled from 843–876 AD. It represents the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987. The collapse of the Middle Frankish Kingdom also compounded the disunity of the Italian Peninsula, which persisted into the 19th century. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Louis I had carefully planned his three elder sons’ inheritances, but from 829 onward his attempts to allocate substantial territory to the future Charles II (the Bald), his young son by a second wife, led to revolts by Charles’s half brothers. Wikipedia.

The treaty, signed in Verdun-sur-Meuse, ended the three-year Carolingian Civil War. It was ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. This made it difficult for a single ruler to reassemble Charlemagne's empire.
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It is the predecessor of the modern states of France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg and Germany. Lothair I or Lothar I was emperor, and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), King of Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855). Lothair's eldest son, Louis II, inherited Italy and his father's claim to the Imperial throne. The eldest, Lothair, was given the title of emperor, but amidst the re-apportioning and the revolts that resulted, his actual imperial power was severely curtailed. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Leo III in an effort to transfer the Roman Empire from east to west. His death in 814 began an extended period of fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and decline that would eventually lead to the evolution of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Since the Middle Frankish Kingdom combined lengthy and vulnerable land borders with poor internal communications as it was severed by the Alps, it was not a viable entity and soon fragmented. After extensive negotiations, the Treaty of Verdun was signed in August, 843. Lotharingia was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire and a later duchy of the Ottonian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France). After Louis’s death (840) open warfare broke out; Louis’s third son, Louis the German, allied with Charles in attacking the eldest son, the emperor Lothar I.

In 751 the Merovingian dynasty which had ruled the Germanic Franks was overthrown with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, and Pepin the Short, son of Martel, was crowned King of the Franks. It would then become modern Lorraine. The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.

[1] He also supported his nephew, Pepin II's claim to Aquitaine, a large province in the west of the Frankish realm.

Middle Francia was allocated to emperor Lothair I, the eldest son and successor of emperor Louis the Pious. The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
In 1871, Alsace-Lorraine became German, after the victory of Prussia and its German allies over the French in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871).

Corrections?

Treaty of Verdun [1], the partition of Charlemagne's empire among three sons of Louis I [2], emperor of the West. But Louis had several sons, and though he wanted the empire to remain a cohesive whole, he divided -- and re-divided -- the territory so that each might govern his own kingdom. Omissions?

The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. Division of the Frankish Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843. After Lothair's death in 855, Upper Burgundy and Lower Burgundy (Arles and Provence) passed to his third son, Charles of Provence, and the remaining territory north of the Alps to his second son, Lothair II, after whom the hitherto nameless territory was called Lotharingia. It is significant because it not only marked the beginning of the empire's dissolution, it laid out the general boundaries of what would become individual nation-states of Europe. The adjective 'upper' refers to its location further up the Rhône river, as distinct from Lower Burgundy and also from the Duchy of Burgundy west of the Saône river. It was named after King Lothair II who received this territory after the kingdom of Middle Francia of his father Lothair I was divided among his sons in 855. At Verdun (in present northeastern France) the following year, Lothar was confirmed in possession of the imperial title and received Francia Media, a long central strip of territory including parts of modern Belgium, the Netherlands, western Germany, eastern France, Switzerland, and much of Italy. The Duchy of Lorraine, originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France. The treaty followed an earlier treaty of Prüm which had split Middle Francia between Lothair I's sons after his death in 855. The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. It was created through the Treaty of Verdun (843) which divided the former empire into three kingdoms. The treaty was the first stage in the dissolution of the empire of Charlemagne and foreshadowed the formation of the modern countries of western Europe. Its capital was Nancy. He received the central portion of the empire, which included parts of present-day Belgium and much of the Netherlands, some of eastern France and western Germany, most of Switzerland, and a substantial portion of Italy. Defeated at Fontenoy, in present Belgium (June 841), and driven from Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen, Ger., 842), Lothar sued for peace. After the death of Louis in 840, Lothair tried to reclaim the power he'd originally wielded as emperor, but his two surviving brothers, Louis the German and ​Charles the Bald, joined forces against him, and a bloody civil war ensued.

During his reign, he divided the empire so that each of his sons could rule over their own kingdom under the greater rule of their father. In medieval history, West Francia or the Kingdom of the West Franks refers to the western part of the Frankish Empire established by Charlemagne.

Charles and Louis received West and East Francia (roughly, present-day France and Germany), while Lothar held the middle kingdom, a long strip of territory stretching from the North Sea over the Alps to Rome and bordered in the west by the rivers Scheldt, Meuse, and Saône and in the … Generations of kings of France and Germany were unable to establish a firm rule over Lothair's kingdom. After several battles,….

Upon the death of Charlemagne, his sole surviving son, Louis the Pious, inherited the entire Carolingian Empire. Melissa Snell is a historical researcher and writer specializing in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, West Francia became the predecessor of France, and East Francia became that of Germany. Lothair was eventually forced to admit defeat. Under the terms of the treaty, Lothair was allowed to keep the title of emperor, but he no longer had any real authority over his brothers. Grab ahold of various geographic facts—not Big Macs—in this quiz. Louis II (the German) and Charles II (the Bald) affirmed their alliance against Lothar I with the Oath of Strasbourg (842). East Francia or the Kingdom of the East Franks was a successor state of Charlemagne's empire ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, The Origin and Decline of the Papal States, The Rulers of France: From 840 Until 2017, Charlemagne: King of the Franks and Lombards, World War I and The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Portsmouth Ended Russo-Japanese War, The Other Reichs: The First and Second Before Hitler's Third, B.A., History, University of Texas at Austin. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Verdun, How Stuff Works - History - Treaty of Verdun. His realm contained the imperial cities of Aachen, the residence of Charlemagne, as well as Pavia but lacked any geographic or ethnic cohesion, which prevented it from surviving and forming a nucleus of a larger state, as was the case with West Francia and East Francia.

Upper Burgundy was reunited with the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy in 933, and eventually merged into the Imperial Kingdom of Arles (Arelat). After the death of Louis the Pious (840), his surviving sons continued their plotting to alter the succession. [3] While the north of Lotharingia was then composed of independent countries, the southern third of Lotharingia, Alsace-Lorraine, was traded back and forth between France and Germany from the 18th to the 20th century. The Treaty of Mersen or Meerssen, concluded on 8 August 870, was a treaty of partition of the realm of Lothair II, known as Lotharingia, by his uncles Louis the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia, the two surviving sons of Emperor Louis I the Pious.
Louis the German, also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia, and ruled from 843–876 AD. It represents the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987. The collapse of the Middle Frankish Kingdom also compounded the disunity of the Italian Peninsula, which persisted into the 19th century. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Louis I had carefully planned his three elder sons’ inheritances, but from 829 onward his attempts to allocate substantial territory to the future Charles II (the Bald), his young son by a second wife, led to revolts by Charles’s half brothers. Wikipedia.

The treaty, signed in Verdun-sur-Meuse, ended the three-year Carolingian Civil War. It was ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. This made it difficult for a single ruler to reassemble Charlemagne's empire.
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treaty of verdun


Grandson of emperor Charlemagne and the third son of Louis the Pious, emperor of Francia, and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, he received the appellation Germanicus shortly after his death in recognition of Magna Germania of the Roman Empire, reflecting the Carolingians' assertions that they were the rightful descendants of the Roman Empire. Updates? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.

She authored the forward for "The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Crusades. Lothair I was given the title of emperor but because of several re-divisions by his father and the resulting revolts, he became much less powerful. Instance of.

It is the predecessor of the modern states of France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg and Germany. Lothair I or Lothar I was emperor, and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), King of Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855). Lothair's eldest son, Louis II, inherited Italy and his father's claim to the Imperial throne. The eldest, Lothair, was given the title of emperor, but amidst the re-apportioning and the revolts that resulted, his actual imperial power was severely curtailed. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Leo III in an effort to transfer the Roman Empire from east to west. His death in 814 began an extended period of fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and decline that would eventually lead to the evolution of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire. Since the Middle Frankish Kingdom combined lengthy and vulnerable land borders with poor internal communications as it was severed by the Alps, it was not a viable entity and soon fragmented. After extensive negotiations, the Treaty of Verdun was signed in August, 843. Lotharingia was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire and a later duchy of the Ottonian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France). After Louis’s death (840) open warfare broke out; Louis’s third son, Louis the German, allied with Charles in attacking the eldest son, the emperor Lothar I.

In 751 the Merovingian dynasty which had ruled the Germanic Franks was overthrown with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, and Pepin the Short, son of Martel, was crowned King of the Franks. It would then become modern Lorraine. The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.

[1] He also supported his nephew, Pepin II's claim to Aquitaine, a large province in the west of the Frankish realm.

Middle Francia was allocated to emperor Lothair I, the eldest son and successor of emperor Louis the Pious. The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
In 1871, Alsace-Lorraine became German, after the victory of Prussia and its German allies over the French in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871).

Corrections?

Treaty of Verdun [1], the partition of Charlemagne's empire among three sons of Louis I [2], emperor of the West. But Louis had several sons, and though he wanted the empire to remain a cohesive whole, he divided -- and re-divided -- the territory so that each might govern his own kingdom. Omissions?

The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. Division of the Frankish Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843. After Lothair's death in 855, Upper Burgundy and Lower Burgundy (Arles and Provence) passed to his third son, Charles of Provence, and the remaining territory north of the Alps to his second son, Lothair II, after whom the hitherto nameless territory was called Lotharingia. It is significant because it not only marked the beginning of the empire's dissolution, it laid out the general boundaries of what would become individual nation-states of Europe. The adjective 'upper' refers to its location further up the Rhône river, as distinct from Lower Burgundy and also from the Duchy of Burgundy west of the Saône river. It was named after King Lothair II who received this territory after the kingdom of Middle Francia of his father Lothair I was divided among his sons in 855. At Verdun (in present northeastern France) the following year, Lothar was confirmed in possession of the imperial title and received Francia Media, a long central strip of territory including parts of modern Belgium, the Netherlands, western Germany, eastern France, Switzerland, and much of Italy. The Duchy of Lorraine, originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France. The treaty followed an earlier treaty of Prüm which had split Middle Francia between Lothair I's sons after his death in 855. The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. It was created through the Treaty of Verdun (843) which divided the former empire into three kingdoms. The treaty was the first stage in the dissolution of the empire of Charlemagne and foreshadowed the formation of the modern countries of western Europe. Its capital was Nancy. He received the central portion of the empire, which included parts of present-day Belgium and much of the Netherlands, some of eastern France and western Germany, most of Switzerland, and a substantial portion of Italy. Defeated at Fontenoy, in present Belgium (June 841), and driven from Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen, Ger., 842), Lothar sued for peace. After the death of Louis in 840, Lothair tried to reclaim the power he'd originally wielded as emperor, but his two surviving brothers, Louis the German and ​Charles the Bald, joined forces against him, and a bloody civil war ensued.

During his reign, he divided the empire so that each of his sons could rule over their own kingdom under the greater rule of their father. In medieval history, West Francia or the Kingdom of the West Franks refers to the western part of the Frankish Empire established by Charlemagne.

Charles and Louis received West and East Francia (roughly, present-day France and Germany), while Lothar held the middle kingdom, a long strip of territory stretching from the North Sea over the Alps to Rome and bordered in the west by the rivers Scheldt, Meuse, and Saône and in the … Generations of kings of France and Germany were unable to establish a firm rule over Lothair's kingdom. After several battles,….

Upon the death of Charlemagne, his sole surviving son, Louis the Pious, inherited the entire Carolingian Empire. Melissa Snell is a historical researcher and writer specializing in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, West Francia became the predecessor of France, and East Francia became that of Germany. Lothair was eventually forced to admit defeat. Under the terms of the treaty, Lothair was allowed to keep the title of emperor, but he no longer had any real authority over his brothers. Grab ahold of various geographic facts—not Big Macs—in this quiz. Louis II (the German) and Charles II (the Bald) affirmed their alliance against Lothar I with the Oath of Strasbourg (842). East Francia or the Kingdom of the East Franks was a successor state of Charlemagne's empire ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, The Origin and Decline of the Papal States, The Rulers of France: From 840 Until 2017, Charlemagne: King of the Franks and Lombards, World War I and The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Portsmouth Ended Russo-Japanese War, The Other Reichs: The First and Second Before Hitler's Third, B.A., History, University of Texas at Austin. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-Verdun, How Stuff Works - History - Treaty of Verdun. His realm contained the imperial cities of Aachen, the residence of Charlemagne, as well as Pavia but lacked any geographic or ethnic cohesion, which prevented it from surviving and forming a nucleus of a larger state, as was the case with West Francia and East Francia.

Upper Burgundy was reunited with the Kingdom of Lower Burgundy in 933, and eventually merged into the Imperial Kingdom of Arles (Arelat). After the death of Louis the Pious (840), his surviving sons continued their plotting to alter the succession. [3] While the north of Lotharingia was then composed of independent countries, the southern third of Lotharingia, Alsace-Lorraine, was traded back and forth between France and Germany from the 18th to the 20th century. The Treaty of Mersen or Meerssen, concluded on 8 August 870, was a treaty of partition of the realm of Lothair II, known as Lotharingia, by his uncles Louis the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia, the two surviving sons of Emperor Louis I the Pious.
Louis the German, also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia, and ruled from 843–876 AD. It represents the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987. The collapse of the Middle Frankish Kingdom also compounded the disunity of the Italian Peninsula, which persisted into the 19th century. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Louis I had carefully planned his three elder sons’ inheritances, but from 829 onward his attempts to allocate substantial territory to the future Charles II (the Bald), his young son by a second wife, led to revolts by Charles’s half brothers. Wikipedia.

The treaty, signed in Verdun-sur-Meuse, ended the three-year Carolingian Civil War. It was ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. This made it difficult for a single ruler to reassemble Charlemagne's empire.

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