Enriched by the dissolution of the monasteries, Henry used some of his financial reserves to build a series of coastal defences and set some aside for use in the event of a Franco-German invasion. The process had been efficient, with minimal resistance, and brought the crown some £90,000 a year. Nos. It was this argument Henry took to Pope Clement VII in 1527 in the hope of having his marriage to Catherine annulled, forgoing at least one less openly defiant line of attack. After the outbreak of the Second World War, the Duke of Gloucester, as Chief Liaison Officer to Lord Gort, spent almost the entire first year of the war in France. , Opposition to Henry's religious policies was quickly suppressed in England. Having known King Leopold III of Belgium from school days, the Duke wanted to meet him personally to offer support after rumours began circulating that Belgium would surrender to Germany. Scarisbrick largely kept Elton's regard for Cromwell's abilities, but returned agency to Henry, who Scarisbrick considered to have ultimately directed and shaped policy. 16. Charles' own campaign fizzled, and he made peace with France that same day. During his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, Henry conducted an affair with Mary Boleyn, Catherine's lady-in-waiting. The Duke's widow, Alice, received permission from Queen Elizabeth II to be styled Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, to distinguish herself from Prince Richard's wife. , On 6 May 1910, Prince George ascended the throne as George V, and Henry became the third in line to the throne. Charles brought the Empire into war with France in 1521; Henry offered to mediate, but little was achieved and by the end of the year Henry had aligned England with Charles. 4, pt. It was decided that Henry would be made a companion of the Knight of the Bath and a Duke of York in October 1493.  Among the dead was the Scottish king, thus ending Scotland's brief involvement in the war. , Although the Boleyn family still held important positions on the Privy Council, Anne had many enemies, including the Duke of Suffolk. Amazingly, this event is barely recorded in Edward Hall’s History of England.  However, when Charles and Francis made peace in January 1539, Henry became increasingly paranoid, perhaps as a result of receiving a constant list of threats to the kingdom (real or imaginary, minor or serious) supplied by Cromwell in his role as spymaster. Behind the Scenes | PBS", "Anne Boleyn: Fatal Attractions (review)", "The jousting accident that turned Henry VIII into a tyrant", "Names in the News: Henry VIII Termed Victim of Scurvy", Sir John Dewhurst in The alleged miscarriages of Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn: 1984, page 52, "Competing Narratives: Recent Historiography of the English Reformation under Henry VIII", "Henry VIII's Obesity Following Traumatic Brain Injury", Henry VIII to Frederic, John, and George, Dukes of Saxony. Emperor Maximilian I had been attempting to marry his granddaughter (and Catherine's niece) Eleanor to Henry; she had now been jilted.  Henry sent his secretary, William Knight, to appeal directly to the Holy See by way of a deceptively worded draft papal bull. , On 31 March 1928, his father created him Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Ulster, and Baron Culloden, three titles that linked him with three parts of the United Kingdom, namely England, Northern Ireland and Scotland.
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