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kingdom of the lombards

Ratchis, the Duke of Friuli, came from a family with a long tradition of rebellion against the monarchy and rivalry with the royal family, but on the other hand, he owed his life and the ducal title to Liutprand, who had forgiven him after discovering a conspiracy headed by his father, Pemmo of Friuli. Sergio Rovagnati defines the continuing negative prejudice against the Lombards as "a sort of damnatio memoriae", common to that given often to all the protagonists of the barbarian invasions. After this failure, the prestige of Ratchis collapsed and the dukes elected as the new king his brother Aistulf, who had already succeeded him as duke in Cividale and now, after a short struggle, forced him to flee to Rome and finally to become a monk in Monte Cassino. Because of this division, the southern duchies were more autonomous than the smaller northern duchies. By the end of the 7th century, almost all Lombards were Catholic, but their conflict with the Popes led to the Frankish king Charlemagne invading Italy in 774. By the time Paul the Deacon was writing in the late 8th century, the Lombardic language, dress and hairstyles had all disappeared. Problems were further exacerbated by widespread famine (538–542) and a devastating plague pandemic (541–542). The Exarchate was not homologous to other Lombard possessions in Italy (that is it was not converted into a duchy), but retained its specificity as sedes imperii; in this way Aistulf proclaimed himself heir in the eyes of Italian Romans of both the Byzantine Emperor and the Exarch, the Emperor's representative.[30]. In the management of public power dukes were joined by minor officials, these the sculdahis and the gastald. This Portable Document file is furnished... ...sity. Over time, the Lombards adopted Roman names, titles, and traditions, and the Lombardic language, dress, and hairstyles had all gone extinct by the late 8th century. The military defeat, however, did not correspond to a disappearance of the Lombard culture: Claudio Azzara states that "the same Carolingian Italy is configured, in fact, as a Lombard Italy, in the constituent elements of society and culture".[38]. With Grimoald’s death, in 671, Perctarit returned from exile and ended the ephemeral realm of Garibald, the son of Grimoald and still a child. Grimoald obtained from the Avars and the return of the deposed ruler and Perctarit, as soon as he returned to Italy, had to make an act of submission to the usurper before he could escape to the Franks of Neustria, who in 663 attacked Grimoald. Alahis rebelled again later, joining with the political opponents of the pro-Catholic Bavarian policy at Perctarit's death in 688. For his expansionist policy, however, he had to reorganize the army to include, albeit in the subordinate position of light infantry, all ethnic groups in the kingdom. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. After the Frankish conquest of Langobardia Maior, only the Southern Lombard Kingdom was called Langbarðaland (Land of the Lombards), as attested in the Norse Runestones.[33].

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