Castling is described by the king's move only; e.g. In descriptive notation, files are named according to the piece which occupies the back rank at the start of the game, and each square has two different names depending on whether it is from White's or Black's point of view. In casual games it is common to announce "check" when putting the opponent's king in check, but this is not required by the rules of chess and is not usually done in tournaments.. The Repetición de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez (Repetition of Love and the Art of Playing Chess) by Spanish churchman Luis Ramirez de Lucena was published in Salamanca in 1497. [note 2] The word "checkmate" is derived from the Persian shāh māt ("the king is helpless"). in the northern or northwestern border areas of Indian culture, where it was in contact with Greek culture brought by the Macedonian-Greek army, and where some rulers issued coins with fused Greek-Indian imagery. Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 square grid. Particularly in Germany, some publications use ":" rather than "x" to indicate capture, but this is now rare. Another system is ICCF numeric notation, recognized by the International Correspondence Chess Federation though its use is in decline. If a player's time runs out before the game is completed, the game is automatically lost (provided the opponent has enough pieces left to deliver checkmate).  Saudi Mufti Abdul-Aziz ash-Sheikh similarly ruled against chess, arguing that it constituted gambling. 398–420. Chaturanga was played on an 8×8 uncheckered board, called ashtāpada . The first substantial argument that chaturanga is much older than this is the fact that the chariot is the most powerful piece on the board, although chariots appear to have been obsolete in warfare for at least five or six centuries. The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; the result is either checkmate (a loss for the player with no legal move) if the king is in check, or stalemate (a draw) if the king is not. The IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. (2004). The fifty-move rule is not applied at FICGS. Chess is featured in films like Ingmar Bergman's The Seventh Seal and Satyajit Ray's The Chess Players. CHESS 3.0, a chess program from Northwestern University, won the championship. For example, in the animated diagram, the black pawn advances two steps from g7 to g5, and the white pawn on f5 can take it en passant on g6 (but only on White's next move). Al-Adli mentions two further differences: This article is about the game chaturanga. Compared to general population, chess players are more likely to be non-right-handed, though they found no correlation between handedness and skill.  Though the 16th century Russian Orthodox Domostroy condemned the game, chess nevertheless remained popular in Russia. Programming a Computer for Playing Chess. A famous 13th-century manuscript covering shatranj, backgammon, and dice is known as the Libro de los juegos. Examples include Spain's Linares event, Monte Carlo's Melody Amber tournament, the Dortmund Sparkassen meeting, Sofia's M-tel Masters, and Wijk aan Zee's Tata Steel tournament.  The reigning Women's World Champion is Ju Wenjun from China.. FIDE also organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, the Chess World Cup, and the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. …  The groundbreaking paper on computer chess, "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess", was published in 1950 by Shannon. When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game, the masters had almost total positional recall. No one knows how many have been printed. The result is.  GM Lothar Schmid owned the world's largest private collection of chess books and memorabilia. In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance, chess was a part of noble culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the "King's Game".  However, the match was controversial, and computers would only win such a match again in 2006. By the year 1000, it had spread throughout both Muslim Iberia and Latin Europe. (For example: "!" Most countries have a national chess organization as well (such as the US Chess Federation and English Chess Federation) which in turn is a member of FIDE.  Sparkling games like Anderssen's Immortal Game and Evergreen Game or Morphy's "Opera Game" were regarded as the highest possible summit of the chess art.. , A relationship between chess skill and intelligence has long been discussed in the literature and popular culture. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves. Iran now has an active confederation for playing chess and sends players to international events. advanced pawns are usually more valuable than those on their initial squares), coordination between pieces (e.g.  Gerhard Josten proposes that the fusion took place in the Kushan Empire ca. They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack.. An example is the minority attack, which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside. The 64 squares alternate in color and are referred to as light and dark squares. In 1843, von der Lasa published his and Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels (Handbook of Chess), the first comprehensive manual of chess theory. The All India Chess Federation is the governing body for chess in India. The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames.  The World Chess Championship 2006, in which Kramnik beat the FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov, reunified the titles and made Kramnik the undisputed World Chess Champion. Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials for pieces, or figurine algebraic notation (FAN) may be used to avoid language issues. Intermediate between these are rapid chess games, lasting between 20 minutes and two hours per game, a popular time control in amateur weekend tournaments. During the game, play typically involves exchanging pieces for the opponent's similar pieces, and finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously or to get a better position. Djakow, I. N., Petrowski, N. W., & Rudik, P. A. The first reference to Chinese chess, called xiàngqí 象棋, appears in a book entitled Xuán guaì lù 玄怪錄 ("Record of the Mysterious and Strange"), dating to about 800. Also in the 19th century, the convention that White moves first was established (formerly either White or Black could move first). Thence it spread eastward and westward along the Silk Road. The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in 1960, and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems; it was adopted by FIDE in 1970.  Black usually strives to neutralize White's advantage and achieve equality, or to develop dynamic counterplay in an unbalanced position.  The next championship, the so-called Match of the Century, saw the first non-Soviet challenger since World War II, American Bobby Fischer, who defeated his Candidates opponents by unheard-of margins and clearly won the world championship match. This is reminiscent of the aforementioned, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 14:26.  In September 2007, he lost the title to Viswanathan Anand of India, who won the championship tournament in Mexico City. Carlsen confirmed his title in 2016 against the Russian Sergey Karjakin and in 2018 against the American Fabiano Caruana, in both occasions by a rapid tiebreaker match after equality in 12 games of classical time control, and is the reigning world champion. Psychologie des schachspiels. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece(s) of either color (except the knight, which leaps over any intervening pieces).
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