On 10 March 1942, the first bombing mission was conducted over the German city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia.  The adoption of the enlarged twin fins not only increased stability but also provided for a greater field of fire from the dorsal gun turret position. Starting at the nose, the bomb aimer had two positions to man. The Rose turret attempted to improve on the FN turrets by being completely open to the rear (improving visibility and allowing easier emergency egress) and by being fitted with two .50 inch machine guns and was installed in a small number of Lancasters but never became common. The engines were changed to the Merlin XX. In addition, four Lancaster IIIs were converted by Flight Refuelling Limited as two pairs of tanker and receiver aircraft for development of in-flight refuelling.  Two Aldis lights were fitted in the rear bomb bay fairing, aimed forward so the bomb aimer could see the converging lights below his blister in the nose; the optimum height for dropping "Upkeep" was 60 ft and, when shone on the relatively smooth waters of the dam's reservoirs, the light beams converged into a figure 8 when the Lancaster was flying at the correct height. The Manchester finally entered service in February 1941, but its low service ceiling of 10,000 feet led to heavy losses, while reliability was poor. A 617 Squadron Lancaster dropping a Grand Slam bomb on the Arnsberg viaduct, March 1945.  On 2 March 1942, the first operational mission of the Lancaster, deploying naval mines in the vicinity of Heligoland Bight, was performed by aircraft of No. When the Luftwaffe began using Schräge Musik to make attacks from below in the winter of 1943/1944, modifications were made, including downward observation blisters mounted behind the bomb aimer's blister and official and unofficial mounts for .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns or even 20 mm cannon, firing through the ventral holes of the removed FN-64. Flight testing of the new aircraft quickly proved it to be a substantial improvement on its predecessor; aviation author Jim Winchester referred to the Lancaster as being "one of the few warplanes in history to be 'right' from the start. On his left was a window, and above him was the astrodome, used for visual signalling and by the navigator for celestial navigation. , The Lancaster B III was powered by Packard Merlin engines, which had been built overseas in the United States, but was otherwise identical to contemporary B Is.  The majority of Lancasters manufactured during the war years were constructed by Avro at its factory at Chadderton near Oldham, Greater Manchester and were test-flown from Woodford Aerodrome in Cheshire. The new aircraft had a ceiling of over 20,000 feet, a potential bomb load of 14,000 lbs (which would late increase to 18,000 lbs under normal conditions) and a range of over 2,000 miles. A strengthened undercarriage and stronger mainwheels, later used by the Avro Lincoln, were fitted. In the 1930s, the Royal Air Force (RAF) was primarily interested in twin-engine bombers.  These designs put limited demands on engine production and maintenance, both of which were already stretched with the introduction of so many new types into service. It was decided to proceed with the Manchester Mk III. The transparencies were difficult to see through at night, particularly when trying to keep watch for enemy night fighters that appeared without notice astern and below the aircraft when getting into position to open fire.  On 9 January 1941, test pilot H. A. , In addition to Avro, further Lancasters were constructed by Metropolitan-Vickers (1,080, also tested at Woodford) and Armstrong Whitworth. Bei Kriegsende waren ca. As it was quickly recognised that Avro's capacity was exceeded by the wartime demand for the type, it was decided to form the Lancaster Aircraft Group, which comprised a number of companies that undertook the type's manufacture, either performing primary assembly themselves or producing various subsections and components for the other participating manufacturers. While not optimal, the Lancaster was capable of flying the return journey home on only two operational engines, along with very limited distances on a single running engine. VII and late Mk. It was the third of the four engined “heavies” to enter service, after the Short Stirling and Handley Page Halifax, and soon came to overshadow both of the earlier aircraft. Only the FN-5A nose turret which was similar to the FN-5 used on the preceding Avro Manchester, the Vickers Wellington and the Short Stirling remained unchanged during the life of the design, except in instances where it was removed entirely. Another Lancaster, Just Jane, NX611, a B MkVII, based in East Kirkby Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre is able to taxi but is not currently airworthy, though there are plans to return her to flight in the future. Despite this, the turrets used, starting with the FN-20, were never entirely satisfactory and numerous designs were tried.  In late 1954, the last Lancaster in active service with the RAF, an aircraft which had been used for aerial reconnaissance missions, is believed to have been retired. A drive belt and pulley to rotate the bomb at 500 rpm was mounted on the starboard strut and driven by a hydraulic motor housed in the forward fairing. The disadvantage of all radar and radio transmitting systems is that attacking forces can locate aircraft by picking up transmissions.  The Mk.  As a result, only 200 Manchesters were constructed and the type was quickly withdrawn from service in 1942.. , The Lancaster conducted a total of 156,000 sorties and dropped 608,612 long tons (618,378 tonnes) of bombs between 1942 and 1945. Although 200 Manchesters were produced, it had become obvious early on that the failure of the Vulture engine would also end development of the Manchester. It was also used for photo-reconnaissance and aerial mapping, as a flying tanker for aerial refuelling and as the Avro Lancastrian, a long-range, high-speed, transatlantic passenger and postal delivery airliner. The aircraft was still officially designated the Manchester Mk III, although the Lancaster name had begun to be used at Avro, and was soon officially adopted. Vorbild: Die Avro Lancaster kam als letzter der drei viermotorigen Bomber (Short Stirling und Handley-Page Halifax) Großbritanniens in Dienst. His primary location was lying prone on the floor of the nose of the aircraft, with access to the bombsight controls facing forward, with the Mark XIV bomb sight on his left and bomb release selectors on the right. , A total of 59 Lancaster B.Is and B.VIIs were overhauled by Avro at Woodford and Langar and delivered to the Aéronavale (France) during 1952/53. The ventral turret position never seems to have been standard on the Lancaster, although many would have some sort of downward firing gun. During the late 1930s, none of these were ready for production. The first production aircraft flew on 31 October 1941.  This was the largest payload of any bomber in the war.  Only 300 of the Lancaster B II, which was outfitted with Bristol Hercules engines, were constructed; this had been produced as a stopgap modification as a result of a shortage of Merlin engines due to fighter production having higher priority for the engines at that time. [note 4] Other experimental turrets were tried out, including the FN-79 and the Boulton-Paul Type H barbette system. Using the Lancaster would have required much less modification to the aircraft itself, but would have necessitated additional crew training for the USAAF crews. 1 x 8,000 lb impact or barometric fused HC and up to 6 x 500 lbs impact or delay fused GP/HE bombs.
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